CORRELATES OF EFFECTIVE SCHOOLS
CORRELATES ARE THE MEANS to achieving high
and equitable levels of student learning. It is expected that all children
(whether they be male or female, rich or poor, black or white) will learn
at least the essential knowledge, concepts and skills needed so that they
can be successful at the next level next year. Further, it has been found
that when school improvement processes based upon the effective schools research are
implemented, the proportions of students that achieve academic excellence
either improves, or at the very least, remains the same.
While the seven correlates continue to appear
in the replication research, it should be noted that our knowledge and
understanding of each correlate is deeper and broader than it was in the
The correlates were defined as follows:
Clear School Mission
- In the effective school, there is a clearly articulated school mission
through which the staff shares an understanding of and commitment to
instructional goals, priorities, assessment procedures and accountability.
Staff accept responsibility for students' learning of the school's essential
High Expectations for Success
- In the effective school, there is a climate of expectation in which
the staff believe and demonstrate that all students can attain mastery
of the essential content and school skills, and the staff also believe
that they have the capability to help all students achieve that mastery.
- In the effective school, the principal acts as an instructional leader
and effectively and persistently communicates that mission to the staff,
parents, and students. The principal understands and applies the characteristics
of instructional effectiveness in the management of the instructional
Frequent Monitoring of Student Progress - In the effective school, student academic progress is measured
frequently. A variety of assessment procedures are used. The results
of the assessments are used to improve individual student performance
and also to improve the instructional program.
Opportunity to Learn and Student
Time on Task - In the effective school, teachers allocate a significant
amount of classroom time to instruction in the essential content and
skills. For a high percentage of this time students are engaged in whole
class or large group, teacher-directed, planned learning activities.
Safe and Orderly Environment
- In the effective school, there is an orderly, purposeful, businesslike
atmosphere which is free from the threat of physical harm. The school
climate is not oppressive and is conducive to teaching and learning.
Home - School Relations
- In the effective school, parents understand and support the school's
basic mission and are given the opportunity to play an important role
in helping the school to achieve that mission.
What is unique about the correlates is that they
are the only set of research based characteristics of a school's climate
associated with improved, better student learning. They are the only set
of research identified constructs with which to analyze that complex social
organization called a school in order to cause the school as a whole to